VRB® Technology
An advanced flow field design
for increased efficiency and
optimized material usage.

VRB® Energy's VRB-ESS® is the most advanced vanadium redox battery technology in the world.

Our core technology includes in-house proprietary low-cost ion-exchange membrane and bipole material, long-life electrolyte formulation and innovative flow cell design.

VRB Energy's technological advancements have dramatically lowered the cost of the core cell stack components compared to previous vanadium flow battery designs. In addition, our electrolyte balancing and shunt current management set us apart from other flow battery providers.

Our fifth-generation cell stack design has an advanced flow field design that optimizes distribution of electrolyte through the cell stacks. This increases overall efficiency and optimizes material usage. 

VRB Energy's proprietary electrolyte formula is engineered for low-cost manufacturing, optimal performance and long-life. While some flow batteries use two different chemicals for the positive and negative sides of the battery, vanadium flow batteries use the same electrolyte on both sides of the battery. This means the batteries are safe and reliable, and there is no harmful corrosion or degradation over time.

Using the multiple valence states of vanadium to store and release charges, enables nearly unlimited charge / discharge cycles of the battery, and there is no risk of combustion or thermal runaway.

Customers can be assured that VRB-ESS® enables a safe, consistent, high storage capacity that lasts a lifetime.


VRB-ESS® systems are composed of two main components.

VRB-ESS® cell stacks that are the heart of our systems, and the electrolyte stored in external tanks that flows through our systems.

The cell stacks are what determine the power (MW) rating of our systems. The standard VRB-ESS® power module is rated at 1MW for MW-Class systems. These power modules are combined with electrolyte storage tanks and power conversion systems (PCS) to form systems from MW / 4MWh.

The amount of electrolyte is what determines the energy (MWh) rating of our systems. With the cell stacks (MW) separate from the electrolyte (MWh) our systems are able to be sized to best meet the needs of our customers.

Adding extra energy (MWh) to a system is accomplished by adding tanks and electrolyte, which yields a lower marginal cost and greater flexibility in sizing or expanding a system.


Vanadium batteries outlast multiple lithium battery lifetimes.

Vanadium batteries outperform when it comes to daily and deep-discharge cycles.

While lithium-based batteries have existed for 30-years or more and are well suited to consumer electronics and electric vehicles, their battery lifetime is limited and would have to be replaced periodically throughout a grid-scale project’s lifetime.

VRB Energy’s VRB-ESS® technology can be discharged over an almost unlimited number of charge and discharge cycles without wearing out.

This is an important factor when matching the daily demands of utility-scale solar and wind power generation.

VRB Energy’s customers always know the health and exact state of charge (based on reference cell voltage) of the VRB-ESS® battery. This is not the case with lithium batteries, where capacity is an ever-changing estimate, and customers must consider battery health and warranty risks when determining economic opportunities to charge or discharge.

VRB-ESS® offer the lowest lifecycle cost of energy (LCOE).

VRB-ESS® can be two to three times lower in LCOE compared to lithium ion batteries when used in daily cycling applications.

Investing in a VRB-ESS® means owning an asset that will last for over 25 years with consistent reliable performance throughout the entire project lifecycle.

Project owners do not have to worry about excessive cell maintenance or augmentation costs, and there are no limits on the depth of discharge or the number of cycles in terms of warranty or performance. This has a tremendous positive impact on lifecycle economics and battery functionality.

This is before taking into account the end-of-life value of the vanadium electrolyte, which can be 30-60% of system value, as opposed to the environmental disposal cost associated with other technologies.

Source: Bloomberg Energy Storage System Costs Survey 2019, October 14, 2019; LiB 2023 pricing; VRB estimates internal. Assumes 6-hour duration system, 1 cycle per day, 25-year project, 5% Discount Rate.

* Depth-of discharge(DoD) for LiB systems is typically limited under warranty provisions to 80% in order to prevent accelerated degradation. Assumes LiB replacement in year 10 at 50% of original cost.


VRB Energy’s VRB-ESS® Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) is typically 10-40% times LOWER THAN lithium, and other battery types.


VRB-ESS are non-flammable and operate at low temperature and low pressure. There is no need to rely on complex battery management systems to prevent thermal runaway or combustion.


VRB-ESS® use the same electrolyte on both sides of battery; charge and discharge cycles can be repeated an almost infinite number of times.

VRB® Energy's 2nd generation VRB-ESS® achieves a 35% cost reduction, 50% smaller footprint, and 10% improvement in performance versus previously installed systems.

VRB Energy VRB-ESS® is the future of grid-scale energy storage.
Contact us to learn more about what VRB Energy can deliver to meet your energy storage needs.